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Folia Medica Indonesiana

ISSN 0303-7932

Vol. 44 / No. 3 / Published : 2008-07

TOC : 4, and page :150 - 156

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Original Article :

Effect of high salt (sodium chloride) intake on fracture risk in male white rats (rattus norvegicus) an experimental laboratory study

Author :

  1. Sunaryo Kusumo*1
  2. Djoko Roeshadi*2
  3. Paulus Liben*3
  1. Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Airlangga University School of Medicine, Dr Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Surabaya
  2. Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Airlangga University School of Medicine, Dr Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Surabaya
  3. Department of Medical Physiology Airlangga University School of Medicine, Dr Soetomo Teaching Hospital, Surabaya

Abstract :

The past epidemiologic studies did not have definite explanation about the effect of consuming high salt (sodium chloride) on fracture risk and they just showed that high salt (sodium chloride) diet influenced bone density. The objective of this study was to explain the effect of high salt (sodium chloride) intake on fracture risk. Experimental animals used in this study were 40 three-month old male Wistar strain white rats. Those rats were randomly divided into four groups, which consisted of one control group and three treatment groups. The control group were given orally 2 ml of distilled water/200 g BW/day, while the treatment groups were subjected to three salt (sodium chloride) suspension orally of 72 mg/200 g BW/day, 144 mg/200 g BW/day and 216 mg/200 g BW/day, respectively, all of which were dissolved in 2 ml of distilled water. After 8 weeks, the bone density was measured at the metaphysial part of femoral bone of all experimental animals using ultrasound densitometry DBM Sonic 1200, the cortical width with radiograph, and the bone strength with Unconfined Compressive Strength Machine Modified. The result was subsequently presented descriptively and analyzed using multivariate analysis and discriminants analysis. It showed that all of the experimental animals with high salt (sodium chloride) intake had a significant difference from control (p < 0.05). Pairwise comparison showed that significant difference (p < 0.05) occurred between the treatment groups of 72 mg and those of 144 mg and 216 mg. The significant difference was also found between the group of 144 mg and that of 216 mg. The tests of Equality of Group Means showed that the significant difference occurred in the response of bone density, bone width and bone strength of all groups (p < 0.05). The stepwise statistics revealed that the response of bone density will appear firstly followed by the response of bone width in associated with high salt (sodium chloride) intake (p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis resulted in linear equation, showing that with increment of every 1 mg of salt (sodium chloride) administration, there would be a decrease in the sound wave velocity through the bone of about 0.478 m/second, a decrease in cortical width of about 0.001 millimeter and decrease in bone strength of about 0.416 Newton. In conclusion, high salt (sodium chloride) intake would cause increase in fracture risk and the increase of its doses administration would be followed by further increase in fracture risk. However, further studies with different methods and measurement devices are needed so as to identify the doses of salt (sodium chloride) intake that can increase the fracture risk.

Keyword :

salt (sodium chloride) intake, bone strength, bone density, fracture risk,


References :

  1. Favus & Murray, J, (1993). Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, 2nd edn . New York : Raven Press Ltd.
  2. Ganong, WF, (1999). Review of Medical Physiology, 19th edn . Connecticut : Appleton & Lange


   


Archive Article

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Volume : 44 / No. : 3 / Pub. : 2008-07
  1. Effect of hsp70 expression on t-cd4+ lymphocyte apoptosis in hiv/aids infection
  2. Ifn-γ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bronchoalveolar lavage patients with pulmonary tuberculosis before and after treatment with oral anti-tuberculosis drugs
  3. Effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the expression of mutant p53 in transitional cells of the bladder an experimental study on rattus norvegicus
  4. Effect of high salt (sodium chloride) intake on fracture risk in male white rats (rattus norvegicus) an experimental laboratory study
  5. Vibrio cholerae and its typing profile
  6. Change of il-1 concentration and intracellular calcium (ca2+ ic) as an indicator of increased bitter taste in thypoid fever
  7. Enriching communication behavior change framework with religious element to increase compliance in taking anti-tuberculous drugs
  8. Cognitive function disorder as a reflection of immunity status in people living with hiv/aids
  9. Lactate dehydrogenase level and the response of non hodgkin lymphoma patients to chemotherapy cyclophosphamide doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (chop) an observational, prospective, cross-sectional study at the department of internal medicine, dr soetomo hospital, surabaya
  10. Fibular autostrutgraft as the optional treatment of the femoral neck fractures in surabaya
  11. The existence of a peak in adolescent’s height increments
  12. Review article and clinical experience: graves’ disease and thyroid storm: classical and non-classical (from formula g/o: p-39.5 – 120 & bw-score to formulas ts-41668 & cs-7.1.5)
  13. Review article: the effects of chlamydia trachomatis infection on women’s reproduction system