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Folia Medica Indonesiana

ISSN 0303-7932

Vol. 41 / No. 1 / Published : 2005-01

TOC : 13, and page :71 - 77

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Original Article :

Review article and clinical experience: metabolic syndrome vs insulin resistance syndrome (a cluster of components and strategies for treatment)

Author :

  1. Askandar Tjokroprawiro*1
  1. Diabetes and Nutrition Center Dr. Soetomo Teaching Hospital Airlangga University School of Medicine, Surabaya

Abstract :

Metabolic Syndrome = MS (in which abdominal Obesity is the culprit of the MS) is defined by NCEP-ATP III in 2001, whereas Dysmetabolic Syndrome = DMS and Insulin Resistance Syndrome = IRS are recommended terms by AACE (in 2002) and ACE (in 2002), respectively. Both AACE and ACE stated that insulin resistance plays central role in the syndrome. All these terms of the syndrome are originally and firstly coined by Reaven as Syndrome-X in 1988, and then Metabolic Syndrome-X in 1999. Either MS or DMS or IRS has become major issues because of its impact on the risks of Type 2 DM (T2DM) development and cardiovascular diseases. The criteria of MS, IRS (including its risk factors), and the clusters of components belong to MS and IRS, are listed in this paper. Rational strategies for the treatment of MS and IRS are focused on obesity and insulin resistance, respectively, and can be summarized as follows: A. Improving insulin sensitivity and lifestyle (weight loss 5-10%, aerobic exercise ± 30-40 min, 4 times/week). B. Pharmacological Interventions directed to the targets for (mmHg, ml/dl): Blood Pressure < 130/85, and 130/80 in diabetic patients, Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) < 110 or 2 Hour Post-75 Glucose Challenge < 140, Triglyceride (TG) < 150, and HDL-Cholesterol > 40 for men, and > 50 for women. Clinical evidence-based data supported, that Metformin (UKPDS Outcomes), Sibutramine (STORM Landmark Trial), and Orlistat (XENDOS Study), to date, are the promising drugs for the treatment of MS/IRS. However, the drugs specifically to improve the insulin sensitivity are hoped to treat this Syndrome. Conclusions: Syndrome-X, Metabolic Syndrome-X, MS, DMS, or IRS, all have become major issues because of their roles in the development of either T2DM or Cardiovascular Diseases. The cluster of components of this Syndrome and its risk factors should be well recognized. Improving insulin sensitivity, losing body weight, aerobic exercise, and pharmacologic interventions (Metformin, Sibutramin, Orlistat) are rational strategies for the treatment of MS/IRS.

Keyword :

metabolic syndrome, dysmetabolic syndrome, insulin resistance syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases,

References :

  1. Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, Boldrin MN, Sjostrom L, (2004). XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients . - : Diabetes Care
  2. Toumilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG et al, (2001). Prevention of type 2 diabetes by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance . - : N Engl J Med


Archive Article

Cover Media Content

Volume : 41 / No. : 1 / Pub. : 2005-01
  1. Editorial vol 41 no 1 2005
  2. Opinion: research in the development of medical science and technology
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  4. The effects of unilateral testicular torsion upon immunity modulation and apoptosis of germinal cells in the contralateral testis. an experimental study in rats
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  9. Comparison of dead victims due to burn between periods
  10. Serum osmolal gap in healthy persons. comparison of eleven formulas for calculating osmolality
  11. Traumatic optic neuropathy in the division of neuro-ophthalmology, department of ophthalmology, dr soetomo teaching hospital, surabaya
  12. The potential role of α-lipoic acid in the management of diabetes mellitus. possible molecular mechanism
  13. Review article and clinical experience: metabolic syndrome vs insulin resistance syndrome (a cluster of components and strategies for treatment)