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Folia Medica Indonesiana

ISSN 0303-7932

Vol. 36 / No. 4 / Published : 2000-10

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Original Article :

The pathobiological changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy and radiotherapy-bcg vaccination combination

Author :

      Abstract :

      The radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) that is essentially aimed at eradicating all cancer cells, either in the nasopharynx or their metastases in cervical lymph nodes, in fact often gave rise to side effects on the immune system. The decrease of the immune surveillance response will be severely detrimental because it can bring about more progressive cancer growth and metastasis. The ability of effector cells to fight cancer is influenced by the activity of Th1 cells. From several reports of works on tuberculosis, it was known that BCG vaccine could trigger the increase of cell mediated immunity (CMI). To understand the effect of radiotherapy and the advantage of BCG vaccine administration toward the improvement of cellular response of Th1 in the tissues of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an experimental pretest-posttest control group design study was carried out. This study involved 77 NPC patients divided into 2 groups: 38 patients were treated with radiotherapy + placebo (control group) and 39 patients were treated with radiotherapy + BCG vaccination (treatment group). The variables studied includes macrophage, NK cells, T CD4 lymphocytes (cT CD4), T CD8 lymphocytes (cT CD8), IL-2 producing T lymphocytes (Tp IL-2), IL-4 producing T lymphocytes (Tp IL-4), IL-10 producing T lymphocytes (Tp IL-10), IFN- producing T lymphocytes (Tp IFN-], IgA producing plasma cells (Pp IgA), IgG producing plasma cells (Pp IgG) and active plasma cells. The obtained data were then treated with Manova test and discriminant test. Based on the obtained patterns, it can be concluded that NPC radiotherapy rendered a decrease of macrophage and NK cells followed by an increase in sPp IgG increase, while the combination of radiotherapy + BCG vaccination caused the macrophage and NK cells to increase followed by a decrease in Pp IgG. BCG vaccination prevented the decrease of Th1 response caused by radiation.

      Keyword :

      nasopharyngeal carcinoma, radiotherapy, BCG vaccination, Th1 response,
      Th2 response

      References :


        Archive Article

        Cover Media Content

        Volume : 36 / No. : 4 / Pub. : 2000-10
        1. The Pathobiological Changes In Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Radiotherapy And Radiotherapy-bcg Vaccination Combination
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