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Jurnal Analisis Hubungan Internasional

ISSN 2302-8777

Vol. 2 / No. 2 / Published : 2013-07

TOC : 17, and page :283 - 331

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Original Article :

Kebijakan amerika serikat dalam menanggapi penguasaan rare earth elements oleh china

Author :

  1. Rolando Virgin Pratama*1
  1. Alumnus Program Studi S1 Ilmu Hubungan Internasional

Abstract :

China has been through a massive development since Deng Xiaoping’s leadership from 1978 to 1992, ultimately after embedding the Economic Reforms and Opennes idea (Gaige Kaifang) which has influenced the country’s perspective towards the world. The 12th Party Congress in 1982, led by Deng Xiaoping, was trying to create a strategic transformation and it focused on country's economic development. Its dominance now in the global market for REE also clearly resulted from strategic industrial policy. Deng Xiaoping established China’s rare earths industry in order to develop a strategic niche. His quote from 1992, “The Middle East has oil, China has rare earths” thus he argued that rare earths could grant China the sort of global leverage OPEC provided the leading Gulf States. For China, geo-economic and geo-strategic competition remains closely linked, the role of the state being to defend the ruling regime and enhance China's comprehensive national power.China invested heavily in domestic REE production capacity from the 1980s onwards. Although the Australian and American governments blocked China's attempts to acquire rare earth mines in Australia and America, China nevertheless succeeded in establishing market dominance. China’s domestic investments in REE production and processing allowed China to saturate global markets, driving down prices and finally eliminating foreign competitors when California’s Mountain Pass facility closed in 2002.As well as providing a source of leverage in international disputes and a means of promoting high-technology development, China's control over the global rare earths supply chain has geo-strategic implications because rare earths are necessary for the manufacture of components critical to many weapons systems. Although America has relied on foreign suppliers for critical defence technologies for several decades, it has usually relied on European or East Asian allies. It has not depended on China, its principal geo-strategic competitor, for the supply of defence-critical components. To avoid dependence, America has begun examining ways to secure strategic rare earth supplies.

Keyword :

United States, economy, Rare Earth Elements, China, policy,


References :

  1. Billon, P. L, (2005). The Geopolitics of Resource Wars: Resource Dependence, Governance and Violence. London : Frank Cass
  2. Connelly, N. G, (2005). Nomenclature of inorganic chemistry: IUPAC recommendations. Cambridge : RSC Pub


   


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