Detail Article

Jurnal Rekonstruksi & Estetik

ISSN 2301-7937

Vol. 2 / No. 2 / Published : 2013-12

Order : 1, and page :1 - 5

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Original Article :

Medical breakthrough of anthropometric methods as basis for 3d digital modelling of indonesian female facial type

Author :

  1. Ulfa Elfiah*1
  2. David S Perdanakusuma*2
  3. Magda R. Hutagalung*3
  4. Agus Windharto*4
  5. Phil. Toetik Koesbandriati*5
  1. Mahasiswa
  2. Dosen
  3. Dosen
  4. Dosen
  5. Dosen

Abstract :

Background: In developed countries, 3D face model based on anthropometric data is used as facial plastic surgery simulation which can be used for setting up a pre-surgery communication between a surgeon and his patient. This system has proved to be effective in producing both satisfactory surgical outcome and patient safety. All this time, Indonesian plastic surgeons have made preoperative and intraoperative evaluation based on the patient’s aesthetic sense or desire, and the surgeon’s operative technique preferences referring to subjective visual “landmark” and Caucasian parameters instead of referring to parameters of the normal Indonesian face which have not yet been established until now.   Objective: To create 3D digital modeling of the Indonesian facial type which will provide useful reference points speedily, accurately and efficiently in facial aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery and other interdisciplinary fields.   Material and Methods: This is an applied study using anthropometric data as basis for formulation of 3D digital modeling of Indonesian facial type, performed on 100 students 17-25 years old without history of facial reconstruction and orthodontics. The first step was to distribute questionares to obtain criteria of normal and attractive female faces. Lateral cephalometry, photometry, direct anthropometry and photography were performed. Data were analyzed to determine minimum and maximum values ​​ plus their standard deviation. These values were analyzed using t test and discriminant test to obtain detailed facial differences. The analysis results were applied to multimedia technology using 3D Max and 3D Menow programs to make an overview of  the 3D digital modeling of the Indonesian facial type. Furthermore, the image was interpreted by an expert before concluding the end result.   Result: The results showed that there was a variance in the criteria of attractiveness in female face between male and female respondents. Criteria of face attractiveness by questionnaire were oval face, thin lips, high nose, narrow mouth, prominent cheekbones, narrow jaws, curved eyelashes, eyebrows slanting upward laterally, small teeth. There were significant differences in female face parameters between normal and attractive groups including 6 landmarks with p<0,05. There distinguishing parameters between normal and attractive groups by discriminant test included nasal bridge index, binocular width, nasal tip protrusion, mouth width index. According to cephalometry and photometry results, the Indonesian face was more convex than the Caucasian face. Two 3D models were made and  based on the average measurement of each group.   Conclusion: Anthropometric, photometry and lateral cephalometric measurements  played a significant role in differentiating the  Indonesian face between normal and attractive also from faces of other races. Three dimension (3D) digital woman models can serve as instruments for characterizing normal and attractive faces visually.

Keyword :

anthropometric methods, 3D digital modeling , Indonesian female facial ,

References :

  1. Baker, Stephen B, (2007). Orthognatic Surgery. In Grabb and Smith’s Plastic Surgery. 6th edition. USA : Lipincott Williams and Wilkins
  2. Behren, Roy R, (2004). Art, Design and Gestalt Theory. USA : Dysart
  3. Becker, Daniel G, (2003). Rhinoplasty. USA : Journal of Long-Term Eff ects of Medical Implants

Archive Article

Cover Media Content

Volume : 2 / No. : 2 / Pub. : 2013-12
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