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Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pathology and Medical Laboratory

ISSN 0854-4263

Vol. 13 / No. 1 / Published : 2006-11

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Original Article :

Colony count candida albicans of stool in autism spectrum disorders

Author :

  1. R. Herawati*1
  2. Ida Parwati*2
  3. I. Sjahid*3
  4. C. Rita*4
  1. Bagian Patologi Klinik FK UNPAD/RS. Hasan Sadikin Bandung
  2. Bagian Patologi Klinik FK UNPAD/RS. Hasan Sadikin Bandung
  3. Bagian Patologi Klinik FK UNPAD/RS. Hasan Sadikin Bandung
  4. Bagian Patologi Klinik FK UNPAD/RS. Hasan Sadikin Bandung

Abstract :

Candida albicans is part of the normal flora of the digestive tract, however in immunocompromised host can cause opportunistic infection. According to Shaw’s case series study in North Carolina USA, colonization of C. albicans is increased in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) patients. C. albicans is a dimorphism fungus, the yeast phase is grown at 37 °C and the mould phase is grown at room temperature. The aim of this study was to compare C. albicans colony count in stools of ASD patients and normal children, and to find correlation between C. albicans colony count and state of ASD. A cross sectional study was conducted from December 2004 to March 2005 on 50 ASD patients and 50 normal children as controls. Diagnosis of ASD was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria. The range of age in both groups was 2 to 6 years old. Stool specimens were collected in Sachs transport media. All specimens were examined in the Division of Infectious and Tropical Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology RSHS/FKUP Bandung. The specimens were examined microscopically and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar incubated at room temperature and 37 °C. The colonies were interpreted in colony forming unit (CFU). The C. albicans was identified by colony microscopic examination and germ tube test. The differences of C. albicans colony count between ASD and normal subject were analyzed by t-test. Correlation between colony count C. albicans and ASD state was analyzed using point biserial correlation. Of 50 subjects, 14 (28%) were diagnosed as pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and 36 (72%) were diagnosed as autistic disorders. There were no significant statistical differences between ASD and normal subjects in age, sex, and nutritional status (p > 0.05). A significant correlation between direct microscopy and the result of Candida colony count was found (p = 0.0000). We did not find a significant difference between the two temperature of incubations (p = 0.390). Mean of C. albicans colony count in normal subjects was 4 CFU. In contrast, the mean of C. albicans colony count in ASD subjects was 39 CFU. The mean C. albicans colony count in ASD subjects was significantly higher than normal subject (p = 0.012). There was a significant correlation between C. albicans colony count and the state of ASD (Rpb0.253372; p = 0.0106) : C. albicans colony count from stool of ASD subjects was significantly higher than normal subjects.We also found a significant correlation between C. albicans colony count and the state of ASD.

Keyword :

Candida albicans, ASD, colony count,


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Archive Article

Cover Media Content

Volume : 13 / No. : 1 / Pub. : 2006-11
  1. Levels of b-hcg among patients with hydatiform mole before and after curettage
  2. Colony count candida albicans of stool in autism spectrum disorders
  3. The comparison of wet mount and gram stain method for vaginal smear in bacterial vaginosis
  4. Microbial patterns based on type of spesimens and its sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs
  5. The value of sdldl of youngsters and its correlation with other lipids
  6. Lipid profile in type 2 diabetic mellitus patient’s
  7. Pathogenesis and diagnostics factors of von willebrand disease
  8. Limited systemic sclerosis in a young boy
  9. The correlation between fecal occult blood test using anti-human hemoglobin and microscopic examination
  10. Advantage and disadvantage of quality assurance based on point of care testing/poct