Detail Article


ISSN 2301-5837

Vol. 2 / No. 2 / Published : 2013-08

Order : 5, and page :83 - 91

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Original Article :

English sound production and phonological alternation in a three year old indonesian child

Author :

  1. Handry Haryanto*1
  2. Layli Hamida*2
  1. Mahasiswa Fakultas Ilmu Budaya
  2. Dosen Fakultas Ilmu Budaya

Abstract :

Acquiring phonology is the first step in acquiring a language. There are several processes in producing speech sound that may occur in a child phonological acquisition. This study aims to provide an initial description of phonological acquisition of Indonesian – Ukrainian three year old mixed-blood child. The description of the consonantal phonemic inventory as well as various Phonological processes evidenced in the child’s speech is also reported. The speech sample was recorded and transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The result of  the research shows that the  Indonesian mixed-blood child has acquired several consonants and vowels such as bilabial consonants [p], [b], [m], labiodental [f] and [v], alveolar consonants [t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l], retroflex consonant [r], palato-alveolar consonant [tʃ], velar consonants [k], [ɡ], [ŋ], labio-velar consonant [w] and glottal consonant [h]. In addition, the child has also acquired short vowels [ɪ], [ɛ], [æ], [ɑ],[ɒ], [ʊ] and [ʌ], long vowels [i:], [ɑ:], [ɔː], [uː] and [əː], as well as diphtongs [ʌɪ], [aʊ], [eɪ], [əʊ], [ɪə], [ɒu], [əu]. However, some of the other consonants have not been acquired by the child, such as: dental consonants [θ], [ð], and palato-alveolar consonants [ʃ], [ʒ], [dʒ]. Because he has not acquired some sounds, there are some alternations and process occur in the child’s speech production. The alternation that occurred in the child’s speech production was mainly influenced by the place of articulations.

Keyword :

phonological acquisition, phonological alternation, phonological process, mixed-blood child, speech sounds.,

References :

Handry Haryanto,(2012) English Sound Production and Phonological Alternation in a Three Year Old Indonesian Child Surabaya : Unpublished

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